With any beautiful design or structure, from architecture to painting, there lies beneath it a grid-based layout from which these creations were originally derived. It is, in essence, the unseen mathematical component of all design that, for many web designers, has become standard in the
A speech therapist, sometimes known as a Speech and Language Therapist or a speech pathologist, is someone who’s qualified to help young people and adults with communications disorders. Most people think that speech therapists are only able to help with speech problems (such as stuttering
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With any beautiful design or structure, from architecture to painting, there lies beneath it a grid-based layout from which these creations were originally derived. It is, in essence, the unseen mathematical component of all design that, for many web designers, has become standard in the pursuit for the perfect web design.
To understand what a grid-based layout for web design is, we first need to understand why it is referred to as “grid-based.” A grid is a structure consisting of intersecting straight vertical and horizontal guidelines that are made up of margins, flow-lines, columns, rows, gutters, modules, and spatial zones. This potentially complex composition provides the perfect structural base that allows a web designer to create graphic elements from, or to organise content within. It is this reason that grid-based layout is used in web design.
By using grids in the website design a sense of uniformed structure is achieved for the overall website, this helps achieve better usability for website visitors as they are able to navigate and engage with the website much easily than if the content was simply thrown together without structure. Another reason grid-based layouts are used is efficiency. By designing to a grid, the actual design process is simplified because design guidelines are already in place, therefore making it easier to decide on design elements, such as width and height.
When using grid-based layouts in our web design, we can either create our own grid, or download a ready-made grid template. If we create our own grid, we will need to rely on what option works best for us and the web design project we are working on. It is therefore valuable to follow some simple guidelines when creating our own grids. These are:
• Use only enough columns as needed for the web design. In other words, if you are only going to use ten columns, then only create ten columns – and not twenty.
• Watch the spacing. As a general rule, columns should have the same number of pixels across as rows are high.
• Don’t box yourself in. If you need to move outside of the grid for specific graphic elements, then do so. A grid is only there for structural support, and is not the end product.
If creating your own grid-based layout isn’t appealing, or you simple do not have the time to invest in it, then downloading a pre-designed grid template is available. There are many online sources that provide such templates, and by downloading a grid template you can save on time and have, at your disposal, an effective grid template ready to use.
It is important to re-emphasise that grid-based layouts for web design should not be mistaken for a strict rule by which all graphic elements or content must adhere to. Naturally, when creating anything we can move beyond specific rules in order to achieve our creative goal, and grid-based layouts are no different. If we use grids as a structural guide in our web design, then we are better able to create amazing web designs that will not only appear organised on our web page, but will hopefully inspire and engage every website visitor. Article from, web developer brisbane Nets and Webs
A speech therapist, sometimes known as a Speech and Language Therapist or a speech pathologist, is someone who’s qualified to help young people and adults with communications disorders. Most people think that speech therapists are only able to help with speech problems (such as stuttering or speech delay) but they actually deal with a much wider range of issues.
All speech therapists will have a three or four year university degree course behind them. Some may have done a post-graduate speech therapy course after a previous degree; generally these courses require three A-levels or equivalent qualifications to enter.
Speech therapy courses are universally intensive and contain both clinical placements as well as theoretical work. Speech therapy graduates will have experience helping treat a wide range of different communications disorders.
In the UK all practising speech therapists are required to register with both the HPC (Health Professions Council) and the RCSLT (Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists).
The Initial Assessment
Though speech therapists can work with adults, most of their patients tend to be children and young people. When they first see a patient, they start out by doing an assessment of the person’s speech comprehension (i.e. how well they understand language) and expressive language (i.e. how well they use language).
Comprehension covers both vocabulary and language structures. Some people have trouble with the correct use of verbs, nouns, and prepositions. This is a vocabulary issue. Others may have issues understanding language structures, such as the meaning of a phrase meant to give instructions.
Expressive language is what most people think of as “speech therapy.” This category is broken down into three different areas: speech sounds, articulation problems, and fluency.
Speech sounds, or phonology, happens when the person simply doesn’t have a certain speech sound in their vocabulary. Alternately, they might be using these sounds inappropriately. When someone pronounces “dog” as “dod,” this is called fronting, for example. Pronouncing “glove” as “glub” is called stopping.
Articulation difficulties mean the patient has difficulty producing speech sounds entirely. Perhaps they have a physical problem that hurts enunciation. Cleft lips and palates, poor dentition, and coordination issues (dyspraxia) can all negatively affect pronunciation.
If someone stammers or tends to hesitate in their speech, it’s considered a fluency issue.
Of course these are not all the areas a speech therapist may examine in their assessment. Since they focus on communication as a whole, they will look at the patient’s ability to listen, concentrate, play, imagine, communicate socially, use the appropriate system of communication, and their behaviour.
For example, a patient may hear the words as they’re spoken, but they might not be able to concentrate enough to process the information they hear. This would be an attention/concentration issue, even if others might assume it’s a hearing impairment.
Social communication, functional language use, and behaviour are also important. Speech therapists therefore look at how well the patient can interact with others, and how well they understand the mechanics of a conversation. Can they choose the appropriate system of communication? If they display challenging or agitated behaviour, is this the product of a frustrating inability to communicate?
It’s important to note that the assessment phase does not necessarily mean putting the patient through a battery of tests in a clinic or office. A speech therapist looks at all the areas where a person experiences trouble: they may observe or work with them in different settings, at home and at school. They will also consult with those who are regularly in contact with the patient — parents, carers, teachers, health professionals, etc.
Following therapy, the speech therapist will work out a plan of options and discuss them with the patient. Therapy usually involves some combination of direct and indirect therapy, as well as any necessary changes in the ‘communicative environment.’
Direct therapy is what most people think of as therapy. Here, the therapist and patient work on a one-to-one basis to deal with the issues identified during therapy. However since this is time consuming and expensive (the patient or therapist must travel) it’s also common to include indirect therapy in the programme.
With indirect therapy, a certain person (such as a teaching assistant or parent) carries out a specific work programme under the speech therapist’s guidance. The therapist still monitors progress of course.
If needed, the therapist may also suggest changes in the communicative environment. This may mean ensuring the classroom and home contain appropriate symbolic systems, or advising people in the patient’s environment on alternative communication methods.